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It pulls itself into an engine exhaust but Ripley fires the engines, blasting the creature away into the depths of space.
After recording the final log entry, she places Jones and herself into stasis for the trip back to Earth. While studying cinema at the University of Southern California , Dan O'Bannon had made a science-fiction comedy film, Dark Star , with director John Carpenter and concept artist Ron Cobb.
O'Bannon had written 29 pages of a script titled Memory , containing what would become the opening scenes of Alien : a crew of astronauts awakens to find that their voyage has been interrupted because they are receiving a signal from a mysterious planetoid.
They investigate and their ship breaks down on the surface. O'Bannon soon accepted an offer to work on Alejandro Jodorowsky 's adaptation of Dune , a project that took him to Paris for six months.
Giger , and Jean "Moebius" Giraud. I had never seen anything that was quite as horrible and at the same time as beautiful as his work. And so I ended up writing a script about a Giger monster.
Shusett suggested that O'Bannon use one of his other film ideas, about gremlins infiltrating a B bomber during World War II , and set it on the spaceship as the second half of the story.
Shusett and he liked the new title's simplicity and its double meaning as both a noun and an adjective. In writing the script, O'Bannon drew inspiration from many previous works of science fiction and horror.
He later stated,"I didn't steal Alien from anybody. I stole it from everybody! Simak in which a crew lands on an asteroid and discovers a chamber full of eggs.
With most of the plot in place, Shusett and O'Bannon presented their script to several studios,  pitching it as " Jaws in space.
That whole idea and scenario was theirs. Despite these rewrites, 20th Century Fox did not express confidence in financing a science-fiction film.
However, after the success of Star Wars in , the studio's interest in the genre rose substantially.
According to Carroll: "When Star Wars came out and was the extraordinary hit that it was, suddenly science fiction became the hot genre. O'Bannon had originally assumed that he would direct Alien , but 20th Century Fox instead asked Hill to direct.
Casting calls and auditions for Alien were held in both New York City and London. They wanted the Nostromo ' s crew to resemble working astronauts in a realistic environment, a concept summarized as "truckers in space".
To assist the actors in preparing for their roles, Scott wrote several pages of backstory for each character explaining their histories.
Roger Ebert notes that the actors in Alien were older than was typical in thriller films at the time, which helped make the characters more convincing:.
None of them were particularly young. Tom Skerritt, the captain, was 46, Hurt was 39 but looked older, Holm was 48, Harry Dean Stanton was 53, Yaphet Kotto was 42, and only Veronica Cartwright at 30 and Weaver at 29 were in the age range of the usual thriller cast.
David McIntee , author of Beautiful Monsters: The Unofficial and Unauthorised Guide to the Alien and Predator Films , asserts that part of the film's effectiveness in frightening viewers "comes from the fact that the audience can all identify with the characters Everyone aboard the Nostromo is a normal, everyday, working Joe just like the rest of us.
They just happen to live and work in the future. Alien was filmed over 14 weeks from July 5 to October 21, Principal photography took place at Shepperton Studios near London, while model and miniature filming was done at Bray Studios in Water Oakley , Berkshire.
A crew of over craftspeople and technicians constructed the three principal sets: the surface of the alien planetoid, and the interiors of the Nostromo and the derelict spacecraft.
Ridley Scott was not convinced that it looked large enough, so he had his two young sons and the son of Derek Vanlint the film's cinematographer stand in for the regular actors, wearing smaller space suits to make the set pieces seem larger.
The children nearly collapsed due to the heat of the suits; oxygen systems were eventually added to help the actors breathe. By removing the glycerin she was able to continue working with the cats.
Alien originally was to conclude with the destruction of the Nostromo while Ripley escapes in the shuttle Narcissus.
However, Ridley Scott conceived of a "fourth act" to the film in which the Alien appears on the shuttle and Ripley is forced to confront it. He pitched the idea to 20th Century Fox and negotiated an increase in the budget to film the scene over several extra days.
Editing and postproduction work on Alien took roughly 20 weeks to complete, concluding in late-January According to Rawlings: "I think the way we did get it right was by keeping it slow, funny enough, which is completely different from what they do today.
And I think the slowness of it made the moments that you wanted people to be sort of scared And I think that's how it worked.
One scene that was cut from the film occurred during Ripley's final escape from the Nostromo ; she encounters Dallas and Brett, who have been partially cocooned by the Alien.
O'Bannon had intended the scene to indicate that Brett was becoming an alien egg, while Dallas was held nearby to be implanted by the resulting facehugger.
Her trying to get the hell out of there, we're all rooting for her to get out of there, and for her to slow up and have a conversation with Dallas was not appropriate.
The musical score for Alien was composed by Jerry Goldsmith , conducted by Lionel Newman , and performed by the National Philharmonic Orchestra.
Ridley Scott had originally wanted the film to be scored by Isao Tomita , but 20th Century Fox wanted a more familiar composer and Goldsmith was recommended by then-president of Fox Alan Ladd Jr.
Scott and Rawlings had also become attached to several of the musical cues they had used for the temporary score while editing the film, and re-edited some of Goldsmith's cues and rescored several sequences to match these cues and even left the temporary score in place in some parts of the finished film.
O'Bannon introduced Scott to the artwork of H. Giger; both of them felt that his painting Necronom IV was the type of representation they wanted for the film's antagonist and began asking the studio to hire him as a designer.
The scene of Kane inspecting the egg was shot in postproduction. A fiberglass egg was used so that actor John Hurt could shine his light on it and see movement inside, which was provided by Ridley Scott fluttering his hands inside the egg while wearing rubber gloves.
For this reason, the image of a hen's egg was used on the poster, and has become emblematic of the franchise as a whole—as opposed to the Alien egg that appears in the finished film.
The "facehugger" and its proboscis , which was made of a sheep's intestine , were shot out of the egg using high-pressure air hoses.
The shot was reversed and slowed down in editing to prolong the effect and reveal more detail. Giger designed for the film, going through several versions in different sizes before deciding on a small creature with human-like fingers and a long tail.
The design of the "chestburster" was inspired by Francis Bacon 's painting Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion.
For the filming of the chestburster scene, the cast members knew that the creature would be bursting out of Hurt, and had seen the chestburster puppet, but they had not been told that fake blood would also be bursting out in every direction from high-pressure pumps and squibs.
The chestburster was shoved up through the torso by a puppeteer who held it on a stick. When the creature burst through the chest, a stream of blood shot directly at Cartwright, shocking her enough that she fell over and went into hysterics.
She had no idea what the hell happened. All of a sudden this thing just came up. The real-life surprise of the actors gave the scene an intense sense of realism and made it one of the film's most memorable moments.
During preview screenings, the crew noticed that some viewers would move towards the back of the theater so as not to be too close to the screen during the sequence.
For the scene in which Ash is revealed to be an android, a puppet was created of the character's torso and upper body, which was operated from underneath.
Milk, caviar, pasta, fiber optics , and Foley's Urinary Catheters were combined to form the android's innards. Giger made several conceptual paintings of the adult Alien before settling on the final version.
He sculpted the creature's body using plasticine , incorporating pieces such as vertebrae from snakes and cooling tubes from a Rolls-Royce. For most of the film's scenes, the Alien was portrayed by Bolaji Badejo.
Scott chose not to show the full Alien for most of the film, keeping most of its body in shadow to create a sense of terror and heighten suspense.
The audience could thus project their own fears into imagining what the rest of the creature might look like:  "Every movement is going to be very slow, very graceful, and the Alien will alter shape so you never really know exactly what he looks like.
Well, there's one way to deal with that. The most important thing in a film of this type is not what you see, but the effect of what you think you saw.
The Alien has been referred to as "one of the most iconic movie monsters in film history", and its biomechanical appearance and sexual overtones have been frequently noted.
The first time we get a good look at the alien, as it bursts from the chest of poor Kane John Hurt.
It is unmistakably phallic in shape, and the critic Tim Dirks mentions its 'open, dripping vaginal mouth. The sets of the Nostromo ' s three decks were each created almost entirely in one piece, with each deck occupying a separate stage.
The actors had to navigate through the hallways that connected the stages, adding to the film's sense of claustrophobia and realism.
However, the name and logo of the company appears on several set pieces and props such as computer monitors and beer cans as "Weylan-Yutani".
Art director Roger Christian used scrap metal and parts to create set pieces and props to save money, a technique he employed while working on Star Wars.
Giger designed and worked on all of the alien aspects of the film, which he designed to appear organic and biomechanical in contrast to the industrial look of the Nostromo and its human elements.
Ridley Scott described the set as the cockpit or driving deck of the mysterious ship, and the production team was able to convince the studio that the scene was important to impress the audience and make them aware that this was not a B movie.
The origin of the jockey creature was not explored in the film, but Scott later theorized that it might have been the ship's pilot, and that the ship might have been a weapons-carrier capable of dropping alien eggs onto a planet so that the aliens could use the local lifeforms as hosts.
The band was testing the lasers for use in their stage show on the sound stage next door. O'Bannon brought in artists Ron Cobb and Chris Foss with whom he had worked on Dark Star and Dune , respectively to work on designs for the human aspects of the film such as the spaceship and space suits.
The final name of the ship was derived from the title of Joseph Conrad 's novel Nostromo , while the escape shuttle, called Narcissus in the script, was named after Conrad's novella The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'.
The spaceships and planets for the film were shot using models and miniatures. These included models of the Nostromo , its attached mineral refinery, the escape shuttle Narcissus , the alien planetoid, and the exterior and interior of the derelict spacecraft.
The Nostromo was originally yellow, and the team filmed shots of the models for six weeks before Johnson left to work on The Empire Strikes Back.
Scott then ordered it changed to gray, and the team had to begin shooting again from scratch. He also took a hammer and chisel to sections of the refinery, knocking off many of the spires that Bower had spent weeks creating.
Scott also had disagreements with miniature-effects cinematographer Dennis Ayling over how to light the models. Bower carved Kane's burial shroud out of wood; it was launched through the hatch using a small catapult and filmed at high speed.
The footage was slowed down in editing. The other shots were simply filmed against black backdrops, with stars added by double exposure.
Scott added smoke and wind effects to enhance the illusion. The Nostromo was pushed away from the refinery by a forklift covered in black velvet, causing the arm to extend out from the refinery.
This created the illusion that the arm was pushing the ship forward. A separate model was created for the exterior of the derelict alien spacecraft.
Matte paintings were used to fill in areas of the ship's interior, as well as exterior shots of the planetoid's surface. The sequel Aliens named the planetoid as "LV",  and both names have been used for it in subsequent expanded-universe media such as comic books and video games.
An initial screening of Alien for 20th Century Fox representatives in St. Louis was marred by poor sound. A subsequent screening in a newer theater in Dallas went significantly better, eliciting genuine fright from the audience.
The first consisted of rapidly changing still images set to some of Jerry Goldsmith's electronic music from Logan's Run , with the tagline in both the trailer and on the teaser poster "A word of warning The second used test footage of a hen's egg set to part of Goldsmith's Alien score.
Alien was rated "R" in the United States, " X " in the United Kingdom, and " M " in Australia. Alien opened in a limited release in American theaters on May 25, Eager to begin work on a sequel, Brandywine sued Fox over their profit distribution tactics, but Fox claimed that Alien was not a financial success and did not warrant a sequel.
The lawsuit was settled in when Fox agreed to fund an Alien II. Critical reaction to the film was initially mixed.
Some critics who were not usually favorable towards science fiction, such as Barry Norman of the BBC 's Film series, were positive about the film's merits.
Ebert reiterated Siskel's earlier opinion, stating that the film was "basically just an intergalactic haunted house thriller set inside a spaceship.
Although in both episodes Ebert singled out the early scene of the Nostromo 's crew exploring the alien planet for praise.
He called the scene "inspired," said that it showed "real imagination" and claimed that it transcended the rest of the film.
Alien won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects and was also nominated for Best Art Direction for Michael Seymour , Leslie Dilley , Roger Christian , and Ian Whittaker.
Alien has been released in many home video formats and packages over the years. The first of these was a minute Super-8 version for home projectionists.
LaserDisc and Videodisc versions followed, including deleted scenes and director commentary as bonus features. A few months later, the set was re-released with the full version of Alien Resurrection taking the place of the making-of video.
In , 20th Century Fox was preparing the Alien Quadrilogy DVD box set, which would include Alien and its three sequels. In addition, the set would also include alternative versions of all four films in the form of "special editions" and " director's cuts ".
Fox approached Ridley Scott to digitally restore and remaster Alien , and to restore several scenes which had been cut during the editing process for inclusion in an expanded version of the film.
Upon viewing the proposed expanded version of the film, I felt that the cut was simply too long and the pacing completely thrown off.
After all, I cut those scenes out for a reason back in However, in the interest of giving the fans a new experience with Alien , I figured there had to be an appropriate middle ground.
I chose to go in and recut that proposed long version into a more streamlined and polished alternate version of the film.
For marketing purposes, this version is being called "The Director's Cut. The "Director's Cut" restored roughly four minutes of deleted footage, while cutting about five minutes of other material, leaving it about a minute shorter than the theatrical cut.
Fox released the Director's Cut in theaters on October 31, Each film was also released separately as a DVD with both versions of the film included.
Scott noted that he was very pleased with the original theatrical cut of Alien , saying that "For all intents and purposes, I felt that the original cut of Alien was perfect.
I still feel that way", and that the original theatrical version "remains my version of choice". The Alien Quadrilogy set earned Alien a number of new awards and nominations.
It won DVDX Exclusive Awards for Best Audio Commentary and Best Overall DVD, Classic Movie, and was also nominated for Best Behind-the-Scenes Program and Best Menu Design.
In , to mark the film's 35th anniversary, a special re-release boxed set named Alien: 35th Anniversary Edition , containing the film on Blu-ray , a digital copy , a reprint of Alien: The Illustrated Story , and a series of collectible art cards containing artwork by H.
Giger related to the film, was released. Additionally, a single of the Main Theme was released in ,  and a disco single using audio excerpts from the film was released in on the UK label Bronze Records by a recording artist under the name Nostromo.
Several previously-released bonus features on the 4k Blu-ray include audio commentary from Director Ridley Scott, cast and crew, the final isolated theatrical score and composer's original isolated score by Jerry Goldsmith, and deleted and extended scenes.
Critics have analyzed Alien 's sexual overtones. Following Barbara Creed's analysis of the Alien creature as a representation of the "monstrous-feminine as archaic mother ",  Ximena Gallardo C.
Jason Smith compared the facehugger's attack on Kane to a male rape and the chestburster scene to a form of violent birth , noting that the Alien's phallic head and method of killing the crew members add to the sexual imagery.
On one level, it's about an intriguing alien threat. On one level it's about parasitism and disease.
And on the level that was most important to the writers and director, it's about sex, and reproduction by non-consensual means.
And it's about this happening to a man. Film analyst Lina Badley has written that the Alien's design, with strong Freudian sexual undertones, multiple phallic symbols, and overall feminine figure, provides an androgynous image conforming to archetypal mappings and imageries in horror films that often redraw gender lines.
I said 'That's how I'm going to attack the audience; I'm going to attack them sexually. And I'm not going to go after the women in the audience, I'm going to attack the men.
I am going to put in every image I can think of to make the men in the audience cross their legs.
Homosexual oral rape, birth. The thing lays its eggs down your throat, the whole number. Alien 's roots in earlier works of fiction have been analyzed and acknowledged extensively by critics.
The film has been said to have much in common with B movies such as The Thing from Another World ,   Creature from the Black Lagoon ,  It!
The Terror from Beyond Space ,   Night of the Blood Beast ,  and Queen of Blood ,  as well as its fellow s horror films Jaws and Halloween Several critics have suggested that the film was inspired by Italian filmmaker Mario Bava 's cult classic Planet of the Vampires , in both narrative details and visual design.
Writer David McIntee has also noted similarities to the Doctor Who serial The Ark in Space , in which an insectoid queen alien lays larvae inside humans which later eat their way out, a life cycle inspired by that of the ichneumon wasp.
Lovecraft 's At the Mountains of Madness , "not in storyline, but in dread-building mystery",  and calls the finished film "the best Lovecraftian movie ever made, without being a Lovecraft adaptation", due to its similarities in tone and atmosphere to Lovecraft's works.
What you need is a cinematic equivalent of Lovecraft's prose. Giger has said he liked O'Bannon's initial Alien storyline "because I found it was in the vein of Lovecraft, one of my greatest sources of inspiration.
Findings from an international audience research project conducted by staff from Aberystwyth University , Northumbria University and University of East Anglia were published in by Palgrave Macmillan as Alien Audiences: Remembering and Evaluating a Classic Movie.
The study discusses memories of Alien in the cinema and on home video from the point of view of everyday audiences, describing how many fans share the film with their children and the shocking impact of the "chestburster" scene, among other things.
Despite initial mixed reviews, Alien has received critical acclaim over the years, particularly for its realism and unique environment,  and is cited one of the best films of The website's critical consensus reads, "A modern classic, Alien blends science fiction, horror and bleak poetry into a seamless whole.
Despite having given Alien a mixed review during its original release, Roger Ebert revised his opinion in and included the film in his "Great Movies" column.
He ranked it among "the most influential of modern action pictures" and praised its pacing, atmosphere, and settings:. One of the great strengths of Alien is its pacing.
It takes its time. It waits. It allows silences the majestic opening shots are underscored by Jerry Goldsmith with scarcely audible, far-off metallic chatterings.
It suggests the enormity of the crew's discovery by building up to it with small steps: The interception of a signal is it a warning or an SOS?
The descent to the extraterrestrial surface. The bitching by Brett and Parker, who are concerned only about collecting their shares.
The masterstroke of the surface murk through which the crew members move, their helmet lights hardly penetrating the soup.
The shadowy outline of the alien ship. The sight of the alien pilot, frozen in his command chair. The enormity of the discovery inside the ship "It's full of McIntee praises Alien as "possibly the definitive combination of horror thriller with science fiction trappings.
Alien , on the other hand, focuses on the plight of people being attacked by a monster: "It's set on a spaceship in the future, but it's about people trying not to get eaten by a drooling monstrous animal.
Worse, it's about them trying not to get raped by said drooling monstrous animal. Gorehounds like it for the chest-burster.
Science fiction fans love the hard science fiction trappings and hardware. Men love the battle-for-survival element, and women love not being cast as the helpless victim.
David Edelstein wrote, " Alien remains the key text in the 'body horror' subgenre that flowered or, depending on your viewpoint, festered in the seventies, and Giger's designs covered all possible avenues of anxiety.
Men traveled through vulva-like openings, got forcibly impregnated, and died giving birth to rampaging gooey vaginas dentate — how's that for future shock?
This was truly what David Cronenberg would call 'the new flesh,' a dissolution of the boundaries between man and machine, machine and alien, and man and alien, with a psychosexual invasiveness that has never, thank God, been equaled.
In , the American Film Institute ranked Alien as the seventh-best film in the science fiction genre as part of AFI's 10 Top 10 , a CBS television special ranking the ten greatest movies in ten classic American film genres.
The ranks were based on a poll of over 1, film artists, critics, and historians, with Alien ranking just above Terminator 2: Judgment Day and just below Ridley Scott's other science fiction film Blade Runner Alien had both an immediate and long-term impact on the science fiction and horror genres.
Shortly after its debut, Dan O'Bannon was sued by another writer named Jack Hammer for allegedly plagiarising a script entitled Black Space.
However, O'Bannon was able to prove that he had written his Alien script first. One of the first was The Alien Dead , which had its title changed at the last minute to cash in on Alien 's popularity.
The film built on Alien by having many similar creatures, which originated from large, slimy eggs, bursting from characters' chests.
Other science fiction films of the time that borrowed elements from Alien include Galaxy of Terror , Inseminoid , Forbidden World , Xtro , and Dead Space The "chestburster" effect was parodied in Mel Brooks' comedy Spaceballs.
Near the end, in a diner, John Hurt does a cameo appearance as a customer who seems to be suffering indigestion.
He turns out to have an "alien" in his gut, and moans, "Oh, no Nintendo 's long-running Metroid video game series, created in , was significantly influenced by Alien, both in stylistic and thematic elements.
In acknowledging the homage to Alien, villains in the first Metroid installment were named Ridley and Mother Brain, after the movie's director and the ship computer, respectively.
In , Alien was deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant" by the National Film Preservation Board of the United States,  and was inducted into the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress for historical preservation alongside other films of including All That Jazz , Apocalypse Now , The Black Stallion , and Manhattan.
Alan Dean Foster wrote a novelization of the film in both adult and "junior" versions, which was adapted from the film's shooting script.
The Book of Alien contained many production photographs and details on the making of the film, while Giger's Alien contained much of H.
Giger's concept artwork for the movie. In , students at North Bergen High School in New Jersey adapted the film into a play.
The production had no budget, with props and sets developed from recycled toys and other items. Social media recognition brought Scott's attention to the play.
He wrote a letter of congratulations to the students "My hat comes off to all of you for your creativity, imagination, and determination" and recommended they consider an adaptation of his film Gladiator for their next stage production.
She got on stage before the performance to congratulate the cast and crew for their creativity and commitment. The success of Alien led 20th Century Fox to finance three direct sequels over the next eighteen years, each by different writers and directors.
Sigourney Weaver remained the only recurring actor through all four films: the story of her character Ripley 's encounters with the Aliens became the thematic and narrative core of the series.
The success of the film series resulted in the creation of a media franchise with numerous novels, comic books, video games, toys, and other media and merchandise appearing over the years.
A number of these began appearing under the Alien vs. Predator crossover imprint, which brought the Alien creatures together with the eponymous characters of the Predator franchise.
A film series followed, with Alien vs. Predator in , and Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem in Sigourney Weaver has expressed interest in reuniting with Ridley Scott to revive her character for another Alien film.
In the commentary track for the Alien DVD included in the Alien Quadrilogy set, she and Scott both speculated on the possibility, with Weaver stating: "There is an appetite for a fifth one, which is something I never expected I think outer space adventure is a good thing for us right now, 'cause Earth is so grim Predator films.
Weaver indicated that she would only return to the franchise if either Scott or James Cameron were to direct. Predator , which he felt would "kill the validity of the franchise".
In July , 20th Century Fox announced that Jon Spaihts had been hired to write a prequel to Alien , with Scott attached to direct. Titled Prometheus , it went into production in May , and was released the following year.
Scott said in a statement: "While Alien was indeed the jumping-off point for this project, out of the creative process evolved a new, grand mythology and universe in which this original story takes place.
The keen fan will recognize strands of Alien 's DNA, so to speak, but the ideas tackled in this film are unique, large and provocative.
Variety reported on February 18, that a new Alien film would be developed by Neill Blomkamp. Several computer games based on the film were released, but not until several years after its theatrical run.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the science fiction film. For its sequels and prequels, and related other media, see Alien franchise.
Theatrical release poster by Philip Gips. Gordon Carroll David Giler Walter Hill. Dan O'Bannon Ronald Shusett.
Tom Skerritt Sigourney Weaver Veronica Cartwright Harry Dean Stanton John Hurt Ian Holm Yaphet Kotto. Terry Rawlings Peter Weatherley. Brandywine Productions  .
Release date. Running time. United Kingdom United States  . Dan [O'Bannon] put his finger on the problem: what has to happen next is the creature has to get on the ship in an interesting way.
I have no idea how, but if we could solve that, if it can't be that it just snuck in, then I think the whole movie will come into place.
In the middle of the night, I woke up and I said, "Dan I think I have an idea: the alien screws one of them [ Further information on individual characters: List of Alien characters.
Main article: Alien soundtrack. Further information on the creature: Alien creature in Alien franchise. The "facehugger" was the first creature Giger designed for the film, giving it human-like fingers and a long tail.
The "chestburster" was shoved up through the table and a false torso by a puppeteer. I resent films that are so shallow they rely entirely on their visual effects, and of course science-fiction films are notorious for this.
I've always felt that there's another way to do it: a lot of effort should be expended toward rendering the environment of the spaceship, or space travel, whatever the fantastic setting of your story should be—as convincingly as possible, but always in the background.
That way the story and the characters emerge and they become more real. I mean, people were screaming and running out of the theater. Further information: List of accolades received by Alien.
It suggests that the filmmaker has finally overcome the interference of heavy-handed studio executives, and that the film has been restored to its original, untampered form.
Such is not the case with Alien : The Director's Cut. It's a completely different beast. Some have argued the film's narrative details and visual design were inspired by those of the Italian film Planet of the Vampires top , such as a scene in which the crew discovers a ruin containing giant alien skeletons.
Unfortunately, the films it influenced studied its thrills but not its thinking. Further information: Alien franchise. Monthly Film Bulletin.
London: British Film Institute. American Film Institute. Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved August 25, Production Company: 20th Century-Fox Film Corp.
Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved June 23, British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved December 9, Box Office Mojo.
Archived from the original on October 25, Retrieved October 25, The Numbers. Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved May 7, Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved April 22, Archived from the original on July 2, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Archived from the original on September 21, Retrieved September 6, Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on September 14, Internet Movie Database.
Archived from the original on February 23, Library of Congress, Washington, D. Archived from the original on October 30, Retrieved September 14, National Film Registry.
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University Press of Mississippi. They're Back! TIME Magazine. Consultado el 16 de julio de Entertainment Weekly. Consultado el 14 de diciembre de Senses of Cinema.
Archivado desde el original el 1 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 19 de diciembre de Consultado el 18 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 26 de junio de Consultado el 23 de julio de Consultado el 14 de noviembre de Archivado desde el original el 26 de septiembre de Consultado el 10 de marzo de Consultado el 15 de3 enero de Box Office Mojo.
Consultado el 27 de enero de Consultado el 19 de diciembre de Consultado el 12 de julio de Rotten Tomatoes. Consultado el?
National Film Preservation Board. Archivado desde el original el 29 de agosto de Consultado el 6 de septiembre de National Film Registry.
Archivado desde el original el 14 de marzo de Archivado desde el original el 13 de octubre de Consultado el 25 de marzo de Consultado el 8 de febrero de Consultado el 9 de febrero de Aurich, W.
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